Classification of drugs

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 List of Antibiotics

List of Antidepressant

List of Antifungal Medications

List of Antiviral Drugs

List of Anti-Parasitic Drugs

List of Anti-Anxiety Medications 

List of Medications for Diabetes

List of AntiHypertensive Medications

Pain Medications List (Non-Narcotic)

List of Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs (Sleeping Pills)

ADHD Medications List

List of Opioid Analgesics

List of Pregnancy Category X Medications









List of Antibiotics

classification of drugs

New Antibiotics



























ClassGeneric/Brand
LipopeptidesDaptomycin (Cubicin®), 2003
FluoroquinoloneDelafloxacin (Baxdela®), 2017
LipoglycopeptidesTelavancin (Vibativ®), 2009
Cephalosporin
(5th generation)
Ceftaroline (Teflaro®), 2010
MacrocyclicsFidaxomicin (Dificid®), 2011



ß-Lactam Antibiotics

Beta-lactam class of antibiotics includes penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems, all of which contain a β-lactam ring.classification of drugs

Penicillins

Antibiotics of the penicillin class are bactericidal and work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls. Penicillins are among the safest antibiotics.classification of drugs

Major health concerns: hypersensitivity reactions.







































































GenericBrand Name
AmoxicillinAmoxil, Polymox, Trimox, Wymox
AmpicillinOmnipen, Polycillin, Polycillin-N, Principen, Totacillin
BacampicillinSpectrobid
CarbenicillinGeocillin, Geopen
CloxacillinCloxapen
DicloxacillinDynapen, Dycill, Pathocil
FlucloxacillinFlopen, Floxapen, Staphcillin
MezlocillinMezlin
NafcillinNafcil, Nallpen, Unipen
OxacillinBactocill, Prostaphlin
Penicillin GBicillin L-A,
Crysticillin 300 A.S., Pentids, Permapen, Pfizerpen, Pfizerpen-AS, Wycillin
Penicillin VBeepen-VK, Betapen-VK, Ledercillin VK, V-Cillin K
PiperacillinPipracil
Pivampicillin
Pivmecillinam
TicarcillinTicar



Cephalosporins

Cephalosporins are mainly bactericidal and act by inhibiting the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. Besides true cephalosporins (which are derived from cephalosporin C) this class includes oxacephems and carbacephems.classification of drugs

Major health concerns: platelet function abnormalities (rare).




















































































































































































































































































































GenericBrand Name
First Generation
Cefacetrile (cephacetrile)Celospor, Celtol, Cristacef
Cefadroxil (cefadroxyl)Duricef, Ultracef
Cefalexin (cephalexin)Keflex, Keftab
Cefaloglycin (cephaloglycin)Kefglycin
Cefalonium (cephalonium)
Cefaloridine (cephaloradine)
Cefalotin (cephalothin)Keflin
Cefapirin (cephapirin)Cefadyl
Cefatrizine
Cefazaflur
Cefazedone
Cefazolin (cephazolin)Ancef, Kefzol
Cefradine (cephradine)Velosef
Cefroxadine
Ceftezole
Second Generation
CefaclorCeclor, Ceclor CD, Distaclor, Keflor, Ranicor
CefamandoleMandol
Cefmetazole
CefonicidMonocid
CefotetanCefotan
CefoxitinMefoxin
Cefprozil (cefproxil)Cefzil
CefuroximeCeftin, Kefurox, Zinacef, Zinnat
Cefuzonam
Third Generation
Cefcapene
Cefdaloxime
CefdinirOmnicef, Cefdiel
CefditorenSpectracef
Cefetamet
CefiximeSuprax
CefmenoximeCefmax
Cefodizime
CefotaximeClaforan
Cefpimizole
CefpodoximeVantin
Cefteram
CeftibutenCedax
CeftiofurExcede
Ceftiolene
CeftizoximeCefizox
CeftriaxoneRocephin
CefoperazoneCefobid
CeftazidimeCeptaz, Fortum, Fortaz, Tazicef, Tazidime
Fourth Generation
Cefclidine
CefepimeMaxipime
Cefluprenam
Cefoselis
Cefozopran
CefpiromeCefrom
Cefquinome
Fifth Generation
CeftobiproleZeftera
CeftarolineTeflaro
Not Classified
Cefaclomezine
Cefaloram
Cefaparole
Cefcanel
Cefedrolor
Cefempidone
Cefetrizole
Cefivitril
Cefmatilen
Cefmepidium
Cefovecin
Cefoxazole
Cefrotil
Cefsumide
Cefuracetime
Ceftioxide
Combinations
Ceftazidime/AvibactamAvycaz
Ceftolozane/TazobactamZerbaxa



Monobactams











GenericBrand Name
AztreonamAzactam, Cayston


Carbapenems

Carbapenems have incredibly broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Today these agents are among the most powerful antibiotics.



























GenericBrand Name
Imipenem,
Imipenem/cilastatin
Primaxin
DoripenemDoribax
ErtapenemInvanz
MeropenemMerrem
Meropenem/vaborbactamVabomere®



Macrolide Antibiotics

Macrolides are bacteriostatic drugs that inhibit protein synthesis by targeting the 50S subunit.

Major health concerns: erythromycin estolate is hepatotoxic.


































GenericBrand Name
AzithromycinZithromax
Erythromycin
ClarithromycinBiaxin
DirithromycinDynabac
RoxithromycinRulid, Surlid
Ketolides
TelithromycinKetek



Lincosamides















GenericBrand Name
ClindamycinCleocin
LincomycinLincocin



Streptogramins















GenericBrand Name
PristinamycinPyostacine
Quinupristin/dalfopristinSynercid



Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

Aminoglycosides are rapidly bactericidal antibiotics which inhibit protein synthesis. These agents mainly interfere with proofreading process. Aminoglycosides are the only bactericidal class among protein synthesis inhibitors.

Major health concerns: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity.







































GenericBrand Name
AmikacinAmikin
GentamicinGaramycin, G-Mycin, Jenamicin
KanamycinKantrex
NeomycinMycifradin, Myciguent
NetilmicinNetromycin
Paromomycin
Streptomycin
TobramycinNebcin



Quinolone Antibiotics

Fluoroquinolones directly inhibit the bacterial nucleic acid synthesis.

Major health concerns: QTc prolongation and/or torsade de pointes, tendonitis, tendon rupture, joint arthropathies.











































































































































GenericBrand Name
First Generation
FlumequineFlubactin
Nalidixic acidNegGam, Wintomylon
Oxolinic acidUroxin
Piromidic acidPanacid
Pipemidic acidDolcol
RosoxacinEradacil
Second Generation
CiprofloxacinCipro, Cipro XR, Ciprobay, Ciproxin
EnoxacinEnroxil, Penetrex
LomefloxacinMaxaquin
NadifloxacinAcuatim, Nadoxin, Nadixa
NorfloxacinLexinor, Noroxin, Quinabic, Janacin
OfloxacinFloxin, Oxaldin, Tarivid
PefloxacinPeflacine
RufloxacinUroflox
Third Generation
BalofloxacinBaloxin
GatifloxacinTequin, Zymar
GrepafloxacinRaxar
LevofloxacinCravit, Levaquin
MoxifloxacinAvelox, Vigamox
PazufloxacinPasil, Pazucross
SparfloxacinZagam
TemafloxacinOmniflox
TosufloxacinOzex, Tosacin
Fourth Generation
BesifloxacinBesivance
DelafloxacinBaxdela®
Clinafloxacin
GemifloxacinFactive
PrulifloxacinQuisnon
SitafloxacinGracevit
TrovafloxacinTrovan


Sulfonamides

Sulfonamides act by inhibiting the pathway that bacteria use to synthesize folic acid. Sulfonamides with trimethoprim produce synergistic antibacterial activity.

Major health concerns: hypersensitivity reactions, renal damage, crystal nephropathy.























GenericBrand Name
SulfamethizoleThiosulfil Forte
SulfamethoxazoleGantanol, Urobak
SulfisoxazoleGantrisin
Trimethoprim-SulfamethoxazoleBactrim, Bactrim DS, Cotrim, Cotrim DS, Septra, Septra DS, Sulfatrim, Sulfatrim-DS



Tetracycline Antibiotics

Tetracyclines are protein synthesis inhibitors primary targeting the 30S ribosome. They are essentially bacteriostatic.

Major health concerns: photosensitivity, deposition in developing bones and teeth.


































GenericBrand Name
DemeclocyclineDeclomycin
DoxycyclineDoryx, Vibramycin
MinocyclineDynacin, Minocin, Monodox
OxytetracyclineTerramycin
TetracyclineAchromycin
Glycylcyclines
TigecyclineTygacil



Other Antibiotics





























































































GenericBrand Name
ChloramphenicolChloromycetin
MetronidazoleFlagyl, Helidac, Metizol, Metric 21, Neo-Metric, Noritate, Novonidazol
TinidazoleTindamax
NitrofurantoinFuradantin, Macrobid, Macrodantin
Glycopeptides
VancomycinVancocin
TeicoplaninTargocid
Lipoglycopeptides
TelavancinVibativ
Oxazolidinones
LinezolidZyvox
Cycloserine 2Seromycin
Rifamycins
RifampinRifadin
RifabutinMycobutin
RifapentinePriftin
Rifalazil
Polypeptides
BacitracinBaciguent
Polymyxin B
Tuberactinomycins
Viomycin
Capreomycin





List of Antidepressant

New antidepressants

Up-to-date comprehensive listing includes most of the antidepressant medications in the current use. Categorized by type (or biochemical family), generic names are listed first followed by the trade names examples.

Common features of all antidepressants:

  • All antidepressants work by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain.

  • Antidepressants are NOT controlled substances.

  • Antidepressant drugs improve depressive symptoms at about the same rate.

New Antidepressants























Generic NameBrand Name
Brexanolone (GABA A receptor modulator)Zulresso, March 2019
Vortioxetine (serotonin modulator and stimulator)Brintellix, approved September 2013
Levomilnacipran (SNRI)Fetzima, approved July 2013
Vilazodone (SSRI)Viibryd, approved January 2011

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)































GenericBrand Name
CitalopramCelexa
EscitalopramLexapro, Cipralex
FluoxetineProzac, Sarafem; Pexeva
FluvoxamineLuvox
ParoxetinePaxil, Paxil CR
SertralineZoloft

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the most widely prescribed antidepressants. SSRIs selectively inhibit the reuptake of serotonin resulting in increased serotonin concentration in the brain.
Main beneficial features of SSRIs over older antidepressants (MAOIs and TCAs):

  • Low overdose toxicity potential.

  • Low risk of severe systemic adverse effects, especially anticholinergic and cardiovascular side effects.

The major drawbacks of SSRIs:

  • Sexual dysfunction, which is the most common SSRI-induced side effect that leads to drug discontinuation.



Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA)



























































GenericBrand Name
AmitriptylineElavil, Endep, Levate
AmoxapineAsendin
ClomipramineAnafranil
DesipramineNorpramin, Pertofrane
DosulepinProthiaden, Thaden
DoxepinAdapin, Sinequan
ImipramineTofranil
LofepramineGamanil, Lomont
MaprotilineDeprilept, Ludiomil, Psymion
MianserinBolvidon, Norval, Tolvan
NortriptylinePamelor
ProtriptylineVivactil
TrimipramineSurmontil

Tricyclic antidepressants represent the oldest class of drugs for depression. Currently TCAs are considered second-line antidepressants in cases when SSRIs are ineffective or as adjunct therapy with newer drugs. TCAs act as non-selective inhibitors of the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine.

Advantages of TCAs:

  • Proven efficacy.

  • Low cost.

Drawbacks of TCAs:

  • Adverse effects such as orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects, cardiovascular effects (arrhythmias and tachycardia).

  • Overdose toxicity.



Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)



























GenericBrand Name
DesvenlafaxinePristiq
DuloxetineCymbalta
LevomilnacipranFetzima
MilnacipranSavella
VenlafaxineEffexor, Effexor XR

Unlike SSRI antidepressants SNRIs block the reuptake of both serotonin and noradrenaline. Generally, SNRIs have side effect profile as SSRIs, but are more likely to produce anticholinergic side effects.



Noradrenergic and Specific Serotonergic Antidepressant (NaSSA)











GenericBrand Name
MirtazapineRemeron, Remeron SolTab

Mirtazapine enhances the presynaptic release of serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain. It works via antagonist activity in the presynaptic alpha 2-adrenergic receptors.



Norepinephrine and Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors (NDRIs)











GenericBrand Name
BupropionWellbutrin, Wellbutrin SR, Wellbutrin XL, Zyban; Aplenzin



Miscellaneous Antidepressants

































































GenericBrand Name
Atomoxetine (Norepinephrine reuptake Inhibitor)Strattera
Agomelatine (5-HT2C receptor antagonist)Valdoxan
Buspirone
(5HT1A receptor agonist)
Buspar
Nefazodone
(5HT2-receptor antagonist)
Nefadar, Serzone
Tandospirone (azapirone, 5HT1A receptor agonist)Sediel
Tianeptine
(Serotonin reuptake enhancer)
Stablon
Trazodone
(5HT2-receptor antagonist, triazolopyridine-derivative)
Desyrel, Apo-Trazodone, Oleptro
Reboxetine
(Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor)
Edronax, Vestra
Viloxazine (Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor)Vivalan
Vilazodone
(Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin 5HT 1A receptor agonist)
Viibryd
Serotonin Modulator and Stimulator
VortioxetineBrintellix
Combinations
Fluoxetine/Olanzapine
(SSRI/antipsychotic)
Symbyax
Amitriptyline/Perphenazine
(TCA/antipsychotic)
Etrafon, Triavil



Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)



























GenericBrand Name
IsocarboxazidMarplan
MoclobemideManerix
PhenelzineNardil
TranylcypromineParnate
SelegilineEmsam (transdermal patch)



Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) are irreversible inhibitors of the enzyme monoamine oxidase. MAOIs inactivate neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. Currently MAOIs have a place in treating Parkinson's disease, atypical depression, as well as depression that does not respond to other antidepressant drugs.

The main dangers of MAOIs:

  • Dietary restrictions. MAOIs have potentially lethal interactions with foods and drugs containing tyramine. Foods containing tyramine include cheese, smoked meats, and red wine.

  • Potential to cause a hypertensive crisis and serotonin syndrome.

  • Risk of orthostatic hypotension

Advantages of MAOIs:

  • Effective for atypical depression.

  • Highly effective for mood and anxiety disorders.

  • Minimal anticholinergic and antihistamine effects.


Mood Stabilizers

Examples of mood stabilizers used to treat depressive symptoms are:















GenericBrand Name
LithiumEskalith, Lithane, Lithobid
QuetiapineSeroquel, Xeroquel, Ketipinor

Atypical antipsychotics

Certain atypical antipsychotics licensed to treat depression are:











GenericBrand Name
Brexpiprazole2Rexulti



List of Antifungal Medications

Allylamines























Generic nameBrand name
AmorolfinLocery® (nail lacquer)
ButenafineLotrimin® Ultra (cream, spray), Mentax® (cream)
NaftifineNaftin® (cream, gel)
TerbinafineLamisil® (cream, gel, spray, solution, oral granules, tablets)

Allylamines are synthetic antifungals with activity against a wide range of dermatophytes. Allylamines act via inhibition of the squalene epoxidase formation, which blocks the synthesis of ergosterol.

Allylamines (with the exception of terbinafine) are used as topical treatments. Oral terbinafine is extensively used for the treatment of onychomycosis (fungal infection of the nail). It acts at an earlier stage by inhibiting the formation of squalene epoxide, a precursor of lanosterol. Oral terbinafine is the first choice for treating infections of fingernails and toenails.

Azoles























































































































Generic nameBrand name
Imidazoles
BifonazoleCanespor® (cream)
ButoconazoleFemstat® 3 (vaginal cream), Gynazole® 1 (vaginal cream)
ClotrimazoleCanesten ® (cream, solution), Clocreme® (cream), Cruex® (spray powder), Desenex® (cream) , Femcare® (vaginal), Fungoid® (solution), Gyne-Lotrimin® (cream), Gynix® (vaginal tablets), Lotrimin (cream), Mycelex® (solution, troches), Pedesil® (ointment), Trivagizole® (cream)
EconazoleEcoza® (foam), Spectazole® (cream)
Fenticonazole *Lomexin®, Gynoxin®
KetoconazoleNizoral® (oral tablets, cream, shampoo), Extina® (foam), Ketodan (foam), Kuric® (cream), Xolegel® (gel)
Isoconazole*Icaden®, Travogen®
LuliconazoleLuzu® (cream)
MiconazoleCavilon® (antifungal cream), Cruex® (spray), Desenex® (topical powder), Fungoid® (cream, tincture), Lotrimin® AF Athlete's Foot Spray (deodorant powder, powder, liquid), Lotrimin® AF Athlete's Foot powder, Lotrimin® AF Jock Itch spray powder, Micatin® (cream), Monistat® 1, Monistat® 3, Monistat® 7, Ting® (antifungal spray powder, spray liquid), Vagistat® 3, Zeasorb® AF (powder, lotion)
Omoconazole*Fongamil®
OxiconazoleOxistat® (cream, lotion)
SertaconazoleErtaczo® (cream)
SulconazoleExelderm® (cream, solution)
TioconazoleMonistat® 1 Simple Therapy, Vagistat® 1
TerconazoleTerazol® 3 (vaginal cream, vaginal suppositories), Terazol® 7 (vaginal cream), Terconazole® (vaginal cream, vaginal suppositories), Zazole® (vaginal cream, vaginal suppositories)
Triazoles
AlbaconazoleUnder® investigation
EfinaconazoleJublia® (topical gel, solution)
FluconazoleDiflucan® (tablets, capsules, injection)
IsavuconazoleCresemba® (capsules, injection)
ItraconazoleSporanox® (capsules, oral solution, injection), Onmel® (tablets)
PosaconazoleNoxafil® (tablets, oral suspension, injection)
RavuconazoleUnder investigation
TerconazoleTerazol® 3, Terazol® 7 (vaginal cream, vaginal suppositories)
VoriconazoleVfend® (oral suspension, injection)
Arylguanidines (Thiazoles)
Abafungin*Abasol® (cream, gel)
* Not available in U.S.

Azoles (imidazole and triazole derivatives) are a large group of synthetic antifungal agents. Azoles are essentially fungistatic, and have a relatively broad antifungal spectrum. The azole antifungals have many drug-drug interactions because of their interference with cytochrome P-450 enzymes.

Imidazoles are considered first-line agents for most dermatophyte infections. Topical formulations are widely used for the treatment of superficial fungal infections and vaginal candidiasis. Imidazoles are very toxic when taken orally, so they are available only as topical formulations.

Triazoles are generally used for prophylaxis and treatment of invasive fungal infections and systemic mycosis.

Arylguanidines are a novel class of synthetic antifungal drugs.



Polyenes























Generic nameBrand name
Amphotericin BFungilin® (lozenges, oral suspension)
NystatinNilstat® (oral drops, capsules, powder, tablets)
Natamycin (pimaricin)
Trichomycin (hachimycin)

The polyenes are naturally occurring compounds with a very broad antifungal spectrum. Polyenes act by binding to sterols in the fungal cell membrane, thereby interfering with membrane integrity and causing leakage of essential metabolites. Most polyenes are used topically, but intravenous amphotericin remains an important agent for the treatment of systemic fungal infections. The risk of nephrotoxicity limits the use of amphotericin B.

Echinocandins



















Generic nameBrand name
AnidulafunginEraxisin® injection
CaspofunginCancidas® injection
MicafunginMycamine® injection

Echinocandins are the most recently developed class of antifungals. Echinocandins are used mainly for the treatment of severe, invasive Candida infections. Echinocandins are safer than other classes of antifungals and have a broad spectrum, and synergistic effect in combination therapy.



Miscellaneous Antifungal Drugs















































Generic nameBrand name
Thiocarbamates
TolnaftateTinactin®, Aftate®, Breezee®, Ting®
Antimetabolites
Flucytosine
Benzylamines
ButenafineMentax® (cream), Lotrimin® (cream)
Other antifungals
GriseofulvinGris-PEG® (tablets), Grifulvin® V (tablets), Grisactin®
CiclopiroxCiclodan® (cream, solution, topical suspension), Loprox® (cream), Penlac® (solution, nail lacquer), Loprox® (topical suspension, gel, shampoo)
Selenium sulfideSelsun®, Exsel®
TavaboroleKerydin®



List of Antiviral Drugs



Anti-herpetic agents















































GenericBrand Name
AcyclovirZovirax, Sitavig
BrivudineHelpin
DocosanolAbreva
FamciclovirFamvir
FoscarnetFoscavir
IdoxuridineHerplex, Dendrid
PenciclovirDenavir
TrifluridineViroptic
ValacyclovirValtrex
PritelivirInhibitor of the viral helicase-primase enzyme complex2, currently under investigation







Anti-influenza agents

































GenericBrand Name
Adamantane Derivatives
AmantadineSymmetrel
RimantadineFlumadine
Neuraminidase Inhibitors
OseltamivirTamiflu
PeramivirRapivab
ZanamivirRelenza



Interferons

Among interferons, only Interferon-alpha is used in the treatment of viral diseases. It has immunomodulatory and antiviral properties.











GenericBrand Name
Interferon-αIntron A, Roferon A, Wellferon, Viraferon



List of Anti-Parasitic Drugs



Anthelmintics

Anthelmintics are agents that destroy or expel parasitic worms (helminths). Interestingly, most anthelmintics were developed for use in veterinary medicine.


























































GenericBrand Name
Bephenium
Diethylcarbamazine
IvermectinSklice, Stromectol, Ivomec, Mectizan
NiclosamideNiclocide
Piperazine
PraziquantelBiltricide
PyrantelAntiminth, Aut, Cobantril, Helmex, Lombriareu, Trilombrin
PyrviniumVanuin, Viprynium
Benzimidazoles
AlbendazoleAlbenza
FlubendazoleFluvermal
MebendazoleMebendacin, Mebutar, Nemazole, Vermox
ThiabendazoleFoldan, Mintezol, Minzolum, Triasox



Scabicides & Pediculicides

Scabicides are agents that kill scabies mites and mite eggs.
Pediculicides are agents used to kill head lice.

















































GenericBrand Name
Benzyl benzoateAscabiol
Benzyl benzoate/disulfiramTenutex
LindaneGBH, G-Well, Kwellada, Kwildane, PMS Lindane
MalathionDerbac, Ovide
PermethrinActicin, Elimite
Pediculicides (only for lice infestations)
Benzyl alcoholUlesfia
Piperonyl butoxide/pyrethrinsPronto Lice Kill System
SpinosadNatroba
Scabicides (only for scabies infestations)
CrotamitonEurax





List of Anti-Anxiety Medications

Types & Classes of Anxiety Medications

Up-to-date comprehensive listing of medications used to treat anxiety disorders.

List of main types of Anxiety disorders

  • Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

  • Panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia

  • Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) (SAD)

  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

  • Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)





Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

































Generic NameBrand NameLicensed indications
EscitalopramLexapro®• GAD
FluoxetineProzac®• OCD
• PD
ParoxetinePaxil®
Paxil CR®
• GAD
• PTSD
• SAD
• OCD
• PD
SertralineZoloft®• PTSD
• SAD
• OCD
• PD
CitalopramCelexa®• "Off label" for social phobia, PD

Currently, antidepressants are recommended as medications of first choice for anxiety disorders if pharmacological treatment is necessary (pharmacotherapy indicated).

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are effective in all anxiety disorders. SSRIs relieve anxiety symptoms and are especially helpful for anxiety disorders that often accompany depression.

Advantages of antidepressants over benzodiazepines:

  • Antidepressants don't potentiate alcohol.

  • No cross tolerance between different SSRIs.

  • No risk of drug abuse.

Main limitations and problems:

  • Side effects: sexual side effects, weight gain.

  • Discontinuation syndrome.

  • Delayed anti-anxiety effect.



Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)


















Generic NameBrand NameLicensed indications
DuloxetineCymbalta®• GAD
VenlafaxineEffexor®
Effexor XR®
• GAD
• SAD
• PD

Selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors duloxetine and venlafaxine work similarly to SSRIs. However, there is no sufficient evidence for their efficacy in the treatment of Obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Main limitations and problems:

  • Side effects: sexual side effects, weight gain, elevated blood pressure.

  • Discontinuation syndrome

  • Delayed anti-anxiety effect

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA)




































Generic NameBrand NameLicensed indications
ClomipramineAnafranil®• OCD
DoxepinAdapin®
Sinequan®
• Psychoneurotic patients with anxiety
• Anxiety associated with alcoholism or organic disease
ImipramineTofranil®• "Off-label" for PD
NortriptylinePamelor®• "Off-label" for PD
ProtriptylineVivactil®• "Off-label" for PD
See complete list of tricyclic antidepressants

Despite not all tricyclic antidepressants are officially approved for anxiety, most are efficacious in the treatment of wide variety of anxiety disorders. TCAs are useful for comorbid anxiety and depression.

Main limitations and problems:

  • Side effects: sedation, dry mouth, constipation, weight gain.

  • Potential lethality in overdose due to cardiac adverse effects and CNS toxicity.

Benzodiazepines






































Generic NameBrand NameLicensed indications
AlprazolamXanax®
Xanax XR®
• GAD
• PD
ChlordiazepoxideLimbitrol®
Librium®
Librax®
• Preoperative anxiety
• Anxiety disorders
• Short-term relief of anxiety symptoms
ClonazepamKlonopin®• PD
DiazepamValium®• Anxiety disorders
• Relief of symptoms of anxiety
LorazepamAtivan®• Anxiety disorders
• Short-term relief of anxiety symptoms
• Anxiety associated with depression
OxazepamSerax®• Anxiety disorders
• Anxiety associated with depression
• Anxiety, agitation, and irritability in elderly patients

Benzodiazepines produce a very fast anxiolytic effect. They start to relieve anxiety symptoms within minutes after dosing. Benzodiazepines may also be used in combination with serotonergic medications during the first weeks of treatment to suppress increased anxiety.

Despite being potent anti-anxiety drugs, benzodiazepines have a number of disadvantages that preclude their use as first-line treatments.

Main limitations and problems:

  • All benzodiazepines are schedule IV controlled substances.

  • Development of dependence and tolerance.

  • All of the benzodiazepines are classified as either Category D or Category X.

  • Side effects:sedation, dizziness, prolonged reaction time, impairment of cognitive functions and driving skills, psychomotor slowing.



Azapirones, Serotonin 1A Partial Agonists













Generic NameBrand NameLicensed indications
BuspironeBuspar®• Anxiety disorders
• Short-term treatment of anxiety symptoms

Buspirone differs from benzodiazepine anxiolytics in that it is not addictive, not sedative, and does not impair cognitive or motor performance.

Main limitations and problems:

  • Slow onset of action

  • Limited efficacy

Antiepileptics


















Generic NameBrand NameLicensed indications
PregabalinLyrica®• GAD
(approved by European Commission in EU, in U.S. off-label use)
GabapentinNeurontin®• "Off-label"

Pregabalin, a calcium channel modulator, is effective for effective generalized anxiety disorder. Pregabalin is indicated for GAD in Europe, but in U.S. this drug is used for anxiety disorders "off-label". Gabapentin, another calcium channel modulator, is also used "off-label" to treat anxiety.

Important advantage of pregabalin over antidepressants is quick onset of anti-anxiety effect – it works within several first days of treatment.



Antihistamines


















Generic NameBrand NameLicensed indications
HydroxyzineAtarax®
Vistaril®
• Anxiety and tension associated with psychoneurosis
• Anxiety withdrawal symptoms in alcoholics
• Organic disorders in which anxiety is manifested
DiphenhydramineBenadryl®• "Off-label"

Antihistamines relatively inexpensive and are sold over-the-counter.

Main limitations and problems:

  • Side effects include sedation, anticholinergic effects at high doses, blurred vision, confusion, delirium and others.

  • Not suitable for severe anxiety.

Beta-Blockers























Generic NameBrand NameLicensed indications
AtenololTenormin®• "Off-label" for situational/performance anxiety
NadololCorgard®• "Off-label" for situational/performance anxiety
PropranololInderal®• "Off-label" for PD, PTSD, SAD, situational/performance anxiety

Beta-blockers are antihypertensive medications primary used to lower blood pressure. Beta-blockers are useful for anxiety accompanied by physical symptoms, especially cardiovascular complaints (e.g. palpitations and tachycardia).

Antipsychotic Drugs (Neuroleptics)




























Generic NameBrand NameLicensed indications
MolindoneMoban®• "Off-label"
OlanzapineZyprexa®• "Off-label"
QuetiapineSeroquel®• "Off-label" for GAD
RisperidoneRisperda®• "Off-label" for OCD, PTSD

There is quite strong evidence that atypical antipsychotic drugs have anti-anxiety properties and can be used as adjunctive treatment for refractory anxiety disorders 1.

Main limitations and problems:

  • Weight gain

  • Glycemic and lipid abnormalities

  • Extrapyramidal side effects

  • Tardive dyskinesia





List of Medications for Diabetes

New Antihyperglycemics

Based on "Harrison's Endocrinology"
written by J. Larry Jameson, MD, PhD

New Antihyperglycemics



































ClassGeneric/Brand/Approval year
SGLT-2 inhibitorCanagliflozin (Invokana), 2013
DPP-4 inhibitorAlogliptin (Nesina, Vipidia), 2013
SGLT-2 inhibitorDapagliflozin (Farxiga), 2014
SGLT-2 inhibitorEmpagliflozin (Jardiance), 2014
GLP-1 receptor agonistAlbiglutide (Tanzeum), 2014
GLP-1 receptor agonistDulaglutide (Trulicity), 2014
Inhaled insulin powderAfrezza, 2014



Insulin Preparations

Insulin preparations differ in how quickly they work, when they peak maximal activity, and how long they work. Insulins are available for intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous administration.









































































GenericBrand Name
Rapid Acting Insulins
Insulin aspartNovolog
Insulin glulisineApidra
Insulin lisproHumalog
Insulin humanAfrezza Inhalation Powder
Short Acting Insulins
Regular insulinHumulin R, Novolin R
Intermediate Acting Insulins
Insulin NPHHagedorn NPH , Humulin N, Novolin N
Long Acting Insulins
Insulin detemirLevemir
Insulin glargineLantus
Premixed Insulins
Insulin aspart protamine/
insulin aspart
NovoLog 50/50, NovoLog 70/30
Insulin lispro protamine/
insulin lispro
Humalog 50/50, Humalog 75/25
Combination with Insulins
Insulin glargine /LixisenatideSoliqua 100/33
Insulin degludec/LiraglutideXultophy 100/3.6



Insulin Sensitizers

Sensitizers increase the sensitivity of target organs to insulin.

Biguanides

Biguanides improve peripheral glucose uptake and utilization.











GenericBrand Name
MetforminGlucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Riomet, Fortamet

Phenformin and Buformin were withdrawn due to lactic acidosis risk.

Thiazolidinediones (Glitazones)

Thiazolidinediones work through the improvement of insulin sensitivity by acting on adipose, muscle, and liver to increase glucose utilization and decrease glucose production.















GenericBrand Name
RosiglitazoneAvandia
PioglitazoneActos



Secretagogues

Secretagogues increase insulin secretion by the pancreas.

Sulfonylureas

Sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion by inhibiting the K(ATP) channel complex of the pancreatic beta cells. Sulfonylureas are used to treat type II diabetes. These agents are not indicated for type I diabetes.





















































GenericBrand Name
First-generation
AcetohexamideDymelor
ChlorpropamideDiabinese
TolazamideTolinase
TolbutamideOrinase
Second-generation
GlipizideGlucotrol, Minidiab, Glibenese
Glyburide (glibenclamide)Diabeta, Micronase, Glynase, Daonil, Euglycon
GlimepirideAmaryl
GliclazideUni Diamicron
GlyclopyramideDeamelin-S
GliquidoneGlurenorm



Meglitinides

Meglitinide derivatives stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic cells, lowering blood glucose levels.















GenericBrand Name
NateglinideStarlix
RepaglinidePrandin, NovoNorm



Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are not technically glucose lowering agents because they do not have a direct effect on insulin secretion or sensitivity. These medications slow the digestive and absorptive process, preventing postprandial glucose raise.



















GenericBrand Name
AcarbosePrecose, Glucobay
MiglitolGlyset
VogliboseBasen



Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) Agonists

GLP-1 analogs normalize fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels without causing hypoglycemia 3. Also, GLP-1 analogs reduce food intake and promote modest weight loss.















































GenericBrand Name
Short-acting GLP-1 analogs
ExenatideByetta
LixisenatideLyxumia, Adlyxin
Long-acting GLP-1 analogs
LiraglutideVictoza
Prolonged-acting GLP-1 analogs
AlbiglutideTanzeum
DulaglutideTrulicity
Exenatide once weeklyBydureon
Under development
TaspoglutidePhase III clinical trials 4



Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors (Gliptins)

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors inhibit DPP-4, the enzyme that inactivates incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP.










































GenericBrand Name
AlogliptinNesina, Vipidia
AnagliptinSuiny
LinagliptinTrajenta
SaxagliptinOnglyza
SitagliptinJanuvia
TeneligliptinTenelia
DPP-4 inhibitors under development
Dutogliptin 5
Gemigliptin 6



Amylin Analogues

Pramlintide is a synthetic form of amylin, a pancreatic peptide produced by β-cells. Amylin and pramlintide lower postprandial glucose by lowering postprandial glucagon and delaying gastric emptying. Pramlintide is indicated for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics who use insulin.classification of drugs











GenericBrand Name
PramlintideSymlin

Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors

SGLT-2 inhibitors are a new class of drugs for Type 2 diabetes with novel mechanism of action. SGLT-2 inhibitors block reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys, leading to excretion of glucose in urine. These glucose lowering medications work independently of insulin.






































GenericBrand Name
CanagliflozinInvokana
DapagliflozinForxiga, Farxiga
EmpagliflozinJardiance
ErtugliflozinSteglatro
SGLT-2 inhibitors under development
Ipragliflozin
Remogliflozin etabonate
Tofogliflozin



Other Anti-diabetic Drugs





















GenericBrand Name
Dopamine agonist
BromocriptineParlodel, Cycloset
Bile acid sequestrant
ColesevelamWelchol, Cholestagel, Lodalis



Combinations







































































GenericBrand Name
Alogliptin + MetforminKazano
Dapagliflozin + MetforminXigduo XR
Glipizide + MetforminMetaglip
Glyburide + MetforminGlucovance
Linagliptin + MetforminJentadueto
Pioglitazone + MetforminActoplus Met, Actoplus Met XR
Repaglinide + MetforminPrandimet
Rosiglitazone + MetforminAvandamet
Saxagliptin + MetforminKombiglyze XR
Sitagliptin + MetforminJanumet
Rosiglitazone + GlimepirideAvandaryl
Pioglitazone + GlimepirideDuetact
Alogliptin + PioglitazoneOseni
Simvastatin + SitagliptinJuvisync
Empagliflozin + MetforminSynjardy
Dapagliflozin + SaxagliptinQtern



classification of drugs



List of AntiHypertensive Medications

agents that can be used for lowering of blood pressure.



Alpha-Blockers (Antihypertensive)

Alpha blockers, also called alpha-adrenergic antagonists, dilate blood vessels by blocking postsynaptic alpha1-adrenergic receptors. Alpha blockers are generally not recommended as initial therapy.



















GenericBrand Name
DoxazosinCardura, Carduran
PrazosinMinipress, Minipress XL
TerazosinHytrin





Alpha-2 Agonists, Central-Acting

Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists work by stimulating alpha-2 receptors and decreasing sympathetic activity, which leads to decreased blood pressure and heart rate.classification of drugs



























GenericBrand Name
ClonidineCatapres, Catapres TTS (patch), Dixarit, Duraclon, Jenloga, Kapvay, Nexiclon XR
GuanabenzWytensin
GuanfacineIntuniv, Tenex
MethyldopaAldomet
LofexidineBritlofex



Aldosterone Antagonists, Selective











GenericBrand Name
EplerenoneInspra



Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers

Angiotensin receptor blockers work by blocking the effects of hormone angiotensin II (type 1 receptor). As a result, blood vessels dilate and blood pressure is reduced.classification of drugs.classification of drugs







































GenericBrand Name
AzilsartanEdarbi
CandesartanAtacand
EprosartanTeveten
IrbesartanAvapro
LosartanCozaar
OlmesartanBenicar
TelmisartanMicardis
ValsartanDiovan



ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) Inhibitors

ACE inhibitors remain the initial treatment of choice for hypertension. This class of drugs blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), thus preventing constriction of blood vessels.















































GenericBrand Name
BenazeprilLotensin
CaptoprilCapoten
EnalaprilVasotec
FosinoprilMonopril
LisinoprilPrinivil
MoexiprilUnivasc
PerindoprilAceon
QuinaprilAccupril
RamiprilAltace
TrandolaprilMavik



Beta-blockers

Beta-blockers produce antihypertensive action by reducing heart rate and cardiac output. Currently beta-blockers are not recommended as first-line treatment due to the risk of stroke and new-onset of type 2 diabetes when compared to other medications 4.classification of drugs















































































GenericBrand Name
Beta-blockers with alpha activity
CarvedilolCoreg, Coreg CR
LabetalolTrandate
Beta-blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity
AcebutololSectral
PindololVisken
PenbutololLevatol
Beta-1 cardioselective beta-blockers
AtenololTenormin
BetaxololKerlone
BisoprololZebeta
CeliprololSelectol
MetoprololLopressor, Toprol XL
NebivololBystolic
SotalolBetapace, Betapace AF, Sorine
Nonselective beta-blockers
NadololCorgard
PropranololInderal LA, InnoPran XL
TimololBlocadren



Calcium Channel Blockers

Calcium channel blockers decrease the entry of calcium into the cells of the heart and blood vessels. By blocking the entry of calcium, this class of drugs reduces heart rate and contractility and dilates arteries.classification of drugs































































GenericBrand Name
AmlodipineNorvasc, Lotrel
BepridilVascor
ClevidipineCleviprex
DiltiazemCalan, Calan SR, Cardizem, Covera HS, Isoptin SR, Verelan, Verelan PM
FelodipinePlendil
LacidipineCaldine, Lacimen, Lacipil, Midotens, Motens
LercanidipineLercadip, Zanidip
LevamlodipineEsCordi Cor, Esam, Eslo, S-Amlip
IsradipineDynaCirc, DynaCirc CR
NicardipineCardene SR
NifedipineAdalat, Nifediac, Nifedical, Procardia
NimodipineNimotop
NisoldipineSular
VerapamilCalan, Calan SR, Covera-HS, Isoptin SR, Verelan, Verelan PM



Diuretics, Loop

Loop diuretics lower blood pressure by reducing blood volume. These medications inhibit the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Loop diuretics promote water loss and increase sodium excretion.classification of drugs



























GenericBrand Name
BumetanideBumex
Ethacrynic acidEdecrin
FurosemideLasix
Piretanide
TorsemideDemadex



Diuretics, Potassium-Sparing

Potassium-sparing diuretics work by leaving more potassium in the blood, as a result more sodium and water are excreted in the urine. Potassium-sparing diuretics are weak antihypertensives when used alone.



















GenericBrand Name
AmilorideMidamore
SpironolactoneAldactone
TriamtereneDyrenium



Diuretics, Thiazide

Thiazide diuretics reduce sodium absorption from the distal tubule segment of the kidney. Thiazide diuretics are known to worsen insulin sensitivity and elevate serum total cholesterol levels4.classification of drugs



































GenericBrand Name
BendroflumethiazideAprinox
ChlorothiazideDiuril
ChlorthalidoneHygroton
IndapamideLozol
HydrochlorothiazideHydrodiuril
MethyclothiazideEnduron
MetolazoneZaroxolyn, Diulo, Mykrox



Peripheral Adrenergic Inhibitors

These medications are rarely used unless other medications don't help.



















GenericBrand Name
GuanadrelHylorel
GuanethidineIsmelin
ReserpineSerpasil



Renin Inhibitors

Renin inhibitors act by inhibiting the activity of renin, the enzyme responsible for angiotensin II levels.











GenericBrand Name
AliskirenTekturna



Vasodilators

Vasodilators work by dilating arterioles. However, vasodilatation by itself causes increased sympathetic outflow to the heart, leading to tachycardia and increased contraction.classification of drugs























GenericBrand Name
DiazoxideProglycem
HydralazineApresoline, Dralzine
MinoxidilLoniten
NitroprussideNipride, Nitropress, Sodium Nitroprusside





Antihypertensive Combinations


































































































































































































































GenericBrand Name
Alpha blockers and diuretics
Prazosin/PolythiazideMinizide
ACE inhibitors and Diuretics
Benazepril/HCTZLotensin HCT
Captopril/HCTZCapozide
Enalapril/HCTZVaseretic
Fosinopril/HCTZMonopril HCT
Lisinopril/HCTZPrinzide, Zestoretic
Moexipril/HCTZUniretic
Quinapril/HCTZAccuretic
Angiotensin ll Antagonists and Diuretics
Candesartan/HCTZAtacand HCT
Eprosartan/HCTZTeveten HCT
Irbesartan/HCTZAvalide
Losartan/HCTZHyzaar
Olmesartan/HCTZBenicar HCT
Telmisartan/HCTZMicardis HCT
Valsartan/HCTZDiovan HCT
Beta-blockers and Diuretics
Atenolol/ChlorthalidoneTenoretic
Bisoprolol/HCTZZiac
Metoprolol/HCTZLopressor HCT
Nadolol/BendroflumethiazideCorzide
Propranolol/HCTZInderide
Timolol/HCTZTimolide
Calcium channel blockers and ACE inhibitors
Amlodipine/BenzaprilLotrel
Amlodipine/PerindoprilPrestalia
Diltiazem/EnalaprilTeczem
Felodipine/EnalaprilLexxel
Lercanidipine/EnalaprilCarmen ACE, Coripren
Verapamil/TrandolaprilTarka
Calcium channel blockers and Angiotensin II receptor antagonist
Amlodipine/OlmesartanAzor
Amlodipine/Olmesartan/HCTZTribenzor
Amlodipine/TelmisartanTwynsta
Amlodipine/ValsartanExforge
Amlodipine/Valsartan/HCTZExforge HCT
Centrally acting drugs and Diuretics
Methyldopa/HCTZAldoril
Reserpine/ChlorothiazideDiupres
Reserpine/HCTZHydropres
Diuretic combinations
Amiloride/HCTZModuretic
Spironolactone/HCTZAldactone
Triamterene/HCTZDyazide, Maxzide
Clonidine/ChlorthalidoneCombipres
Hydralazine/HCTZApresazide
Methyldopa/HCTZAldoril
Prazosin/PolythiazideMinizide
Other combinations
Amlodipine/AtorvastatinCaduet
Amlodipine/AliskirenTekamlo
Amlodipine/Aliskiren/HCTZAmturnide
Aliskiren/HCTZTekturna HCT
Aliskiren/ValsartanValturna
Nebivolol/ValsartanByvalson



Pain Medications List (Non-Narcotic)

Based on "Essential Pain Pharmacology"
written by Howard S. Smith, MD; Marco Pappagallo, MD classification of drugs

Many types of analgesics and adjunct agents are available for addressing different pain conditions. Pain medications share their mechanism of action. They all provide analgesic effect by interfering with the pain signaling cascade.

Following is a complete list of pain medications organized by classes and types. The listing is regularly updated and includes latest new drug approvals.

Simple (Non-Opioid) Analgesics













GenericBrand NameLegal status
Acetaminophen (paracetamol)TylenolOTC

Acetaminophen is appropriate for mild to moderate pain. Acetaminophen has very few side effects, low incidence of hypersensitivity reactions, and is relatively inexpensive. Acetaminophen does not produce addiction or tolerance.

The main issue with acetaminophen is a risk of serious hepatotoxicity with overdose.

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Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

































































































































GenericBrand NameLegal status
AspirinOTC
BromfenacProlensa, BromdayRx
DiclofenacCataflam, Voltaren, ZipsorRx
DiflunisalDolobidRx
EtodolacLodine, Lodine XLRx
FenoprofenNalfonRx
FlurbiprofenAnsaidRx
IbuprofenAdvil, Cramp End, Dolgesic, Excedrin IB, Genpril, Haltran, Ibren, Ibu, Ibuprin, Ibuprohm, Ibu-Tab, Medipren, Midol IB, Motrin, Nuprin, Pamprin-IB, Q-Profen, Rufen, TrendarOTC,
Rx
IndomethacinIndocin, Indocin SR, TivorbexRx
KetoprofenActron, Orudis, OruvailOTC, Rx
KetorolacToradol, SprixRx
MeclofenamateMeclomenRx
Mefenamic AcidPonstelRx
MeloxicamMobic, VivlodexRx
NabumetoneRelafenRx
NaproxenAleve, Anaprox,
Anaprox DS, EC-Naprosyn, Naprelan, Naprosyn
OTC,
Rx
NepafenacNevanacRx
OxaprozinDayproRx
PhenylbutazoneCotylbutazoneRx
PiroxicamFeldeneRx
SulindacClinorilRx
TolmetinTolectin, Tolectin DSRx
COX-2 Inhibitors
CelecoxibCelebrexRx
See also list of NSAIDs by type

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs represent a wide class of pain relievers. All NSAIDs have varying degrees of anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic properties as well as different side effects, time to onset of action, and duration of action. NSAIDs are used primarily to treat inflammation, mild to moderate pain, and fever. Aspirin is used to prevent blood clotting.



Combination Pain Relievers



















GenericBrand Name
Butalbital, Acetaminophen, and CaffeineFemcet, Fioricet, Esgic, Esgic-Plus
Butalbital, Aspirin, and CaffeineFiorinal
Butalbital, acetaminophen, caffeine, and codeineFioricet with Codeine



Topical Analgesics













GenericBrand NameLegal status
CapsaicinArthriCare, ARTH-RX, Axsain, Capsagel, Dura-Patch, Methacin, Qutenza, Zotrix, Zotrix-HPOTC

classification of drugs

Topical Anesthetics

While analgesics lessen the sensation of pain, anesthetics block all physical feelings, including pain.

































GenericBrand NameLegal status
BenzocaineAmericaine, Endocaine, LagolOTC
Benzocaine / MentholBenzocol, Butyl Aminobenzoate, DermoplastOTC
DibucaineCinchocaine, Nupercainal Cream, Nupercainal OinmentOTC,
Rx
LidocaineLidaMantle, Lidoderm, Lignocainem, XylocaineRx
Lidocaine/ PrilocaineEMLARx





Medications for Neuropathic Pain

List of drugs approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of neuropathic pain syndromes (nerve pain):

































GenericBrand NameLegal status
CarbamazepineTegretol6Rx
DuloxetineCymbalta3Rx
GabapentinNeurontin7Rx
Lidocaine patchLidoderm8Rx
PregabalinLyrica5Rx,
Sch.V



Medications for Fibromyalgia

Symptoms of fibromyalgia are managed with pain relievers, antidepressants, muscle relaxants, and sleep medicines.

List of medications approved by the U.S. FDA specifically for the treatment of fibromyalgia:























GenericBrand NameLegal status
DuloxetineCymbaltaRx
MilnacipranSavellaRx
PregabalinLyricaRx,
Sch.V



List of Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs (Sleeping Pills)

Several different classes of medications are used to treat insomnia. This list includes both prescription and over-the-counter sedative-hypnotic medications.

Non-Benzodiazepine hypnotics (Z-Drugs)

Z-drugs are structurally unrelated to each other. These medications have largely replaced traditional benzodiazepines in the treatment of insomnia.


























GenericBrand Name
EszopicloneLunesta
ZaleplonSonata
ZolpidemAmbien, Intermezzo, Zolpimist
Zopiclone *Zimovane
NOT approved in the US





Melatonin receptor agonists

Ramelteon is currently the only FDA-approved melatonin receptor agonist. Ramelteon is used for sleep onset insomnia and has little value for maintaining sleep.











GenericBrand Name
RamelteonRozerem

Orexin receptor antagonists

Orexin-receptor antagonists is a novel pharmacologic class of hypnotics. The first - and by far the only - member of this class was approved in 2014.











GenericBrand Name
SuvorexantBelsomra

Benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepine hypnotics are used for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Benzodiazepines produce sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, and muscle relaxant effects.

Benzodiazepines shorten sleep latency and reduce the number of awakenings and the time spent in stage of wakefulness.

All benzodiazepines are controlled substances in schedule IV.
























































































GenericBrand Name
Hypnotics
Brotizolam *Lendormin
EstazolamProsom
FlurazepamDalmane
Loprazolam*Dormonoct, Havlane, Sonin, Somnovit
Lormetazepam*Loramet, Noctamid
Nitrazepam*Cerson, Mogadon, Nitrazadon, Radedorm
QuazepamDoral
TemazepamRestoril
TriazolamHalcion
NOT approved in the US
Anxiolytics (not approved as hypnotics)
AlprazolamXanax
BromazepamLexotan
ChlordiazepoxideLibrium
Clorazepate dipotassiumTranxene, Gen-Xene
ClonazepamKlonopin
DiazepamValium
LorazepamAtivan
MidazolamVersed
OxazepamSerax

Sedating antidepressants

Sedating antidepressants are widely used for insomnia, but are not officially licensed for this indication. Currently doxepin is the only antidepressant approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of insomnia.


























GenericBrand Name
Amitriptyline*Elavil, Endep, Vanatrip
DoxepinSilenor, Sinequan, Adapin
Mirtazapine*Remeron
Trazodone*Desyrel, Oleptro, Trittico
NOT FDA approved for insomnia

Barbiturates

Currently barbiturates are not recommended for routine use for insomnia due to high incidence of tolerance and dependence.



























GenericBrand Name
AmobarbitalAmytal Sodium
ButabarbitalButisol
PentobarbitalNembutal
Phenobarbital
SecobarbitalSeconal Sodium

Other sedative-hypnotic agents



















Generic/ClassBrand Name
Chloral hydrate
(sedative, hypnotic)
Somnote, Noctec, Aquachloral
DexmedetomidinePrecedex, Dexdor, Dexdomitor
EthchlorvynolPlacidyl



Over-the-counter sleep aids

Most of the over-the-counter sleep aids contain sedating antihistamine (histamine type 1 receptor blocker).















GenericBrand Name
DiphenhydramineBenadryl
DoxylamineUnisom SleepTabs, Good Sense Sleep Aid



Dietary supplements, herbal products



























NameClass
Melatoninhormone secreted by the pineal gland, available as dietary supplement
Kavaherbal product
Passion flowerherbal product
St. John's wortherbal product
Valerianherbal product

"Off-label" Sleep Aids
















































GenericBrand Name
Atypical antipsychotics
Olanzapine 5Zyprexa
Quetiapine 6Seroquel, Seroquel XR
Anticonvulants
Gabapentin7Neurontin
Tiagabine8Gabitril
Antihistamines
Chlorpheniramine 3Antagonate, Chlor-Trimeton, Kloromin, Phenetron, Pyridamal 100, Teldrin
Hydroxyzine and its combinations2Vistaril, Atarax
Promethazine 3Phenergan, Remsed
Trimeprazine 4Temaril, Vallergan





ADHD Medications List

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by excessive motor activity, difficulty paying attention, and impulsive behavior (acting before you think).

PsychoStimulants

The two classes of psychostimulants indicated for the treatment of ADHD are:

  • Methylphenidate

  • Amphetamines

Stimulants function by increasing the amount of dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain and stimulating the central nervous system.

Stimulants are the most potent, and also the most effective class of ADHD medications. Stimulant drugs are considered a first line therapy for controlling ADHD symptoms, unless there are contraindications that preclude their use. Methylphenidate and amphetamines are equally effective, with efficacy rates ranging from 70% to 90%34.

Stimulants are available in many different formulations including short-acting, intermediate-acting, and long-acting preparations.



































Generic nameBrand name
AmphetamineDyanavel XR, Adzenys XR, Evekeo
Amphetamine/ dextroamphetamine saltsAdderall, Adderall XR
DexmethylphenidateFocalin, Focalin XR, Dexedrine, Dextrostat, ProCentra, Zenzedi
LisdexamfetamineVyvanse
MethamphetamineDesoxyn
MethylphenidateRitalin, Ritalin SR, Ritalin LA, Methylin, Methylin ER, Quillichew ER, Quillivant XR, Aptensio XR, Concerta ER, Metadate CD
Methylphenidate transdermalDaytrana



Non-Stimulants

Non-stimulant medications approved for the treatment of ADHD have different mode of action compared to psychostimulants and are considered non-addictive with more favorable side effect profiles.

On the other hand, non-stimulants are generally less effective than stimulants in the treatment of ADHD. The non-stimulants are usually considered second- and third-line medications.

Atomoxetine is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with a unique mechanism of action. Atomoxetine is thought to have minimal abuse potential and significantly less withdrawal symptoms than psychostimulants. The main drawback is that atomoxetine doesn't directly influence dopamine and it may take several weeks before the drug elicits a therapeutic effect.classification of drugs

Two antihypertensive drugs (alpha-2 noradrenergic agonists) are approved by the FDA to treat ADHD. These drugs reduce activity in the central nervous system but are considered less effective than stimulants2. Clonidine and guanfacine are considered relatively safe over the long-term.

























Generic nameBrand name
Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor
AtomoxetineStrattera
Alpha-2 Noradrenergic Agonists
Clonidine extended-releaseKapvay
Guanfacine extended-releaseIntuniv

"Off-label" Medications

There are several medications used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder "off-label". While they are not approved for this disease, these medications can improve productivity, concentration, and overall cognitive function. Additionally, many are used as an augmentation strategy to treat patients that have comorbid depression or other disorders.



































































Generic nameBrand name
Short-acting forms Alpha-2 Noradrenergic Agonists
ClonidineCatapres
GuanfacineTenex
Antipsychotics
AripiprazoleAbilify
OlanzapineZyprexa
QuetiapineSeroque
RisperidoneRisperdal
ZiprasidoneGeodon
Wakefulness-promoting (eugeroic) drugs
ArmodafinilNuvigil
ModafinilNuvigil
Antidepressants
DesipramineNorpramin
ImipramineTofranil
BupropionWellbutrin SR, Wellbutrin XL



ADHD medications under investigation























Generic name, ClassBrand name
Vortioxetine5
(serotonin modulator and stimulator)
Brintellix, Trintellix
Centanafadine
(serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor)
Dasotraline
(serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor )
Metadoxine6



List of Opioid Analgesics

Following is a comprehensive list of opioid drugs indicated for pain management. The listing is regularly updated and includes latest new drug approvals.

Analgesics are not designed to and do not treat the problem causing the pain. These medications only temporary lessen the intensity, duration, or sensation of pain.

Opioid (Narcotic) Drugs

Opioids (also called narcotic analgesics) remain the most potent and effective pain relievers available today and are often called "painkillers". They provide powerful dose-dependent relief of moderate to severe pain.

List of opioids grouped according to their activity at opioid receptors:






















































































































GenericBrand NameLegal status2
Full Opioid Agonists
CodeineRx,
Sch.III
FentanylDuragesic, SublimazeRx,
Sch.II
HydrocodoneZohydro ER, Hysingla ERRx,
Sch.II
HydromorphoneDilaudid, Dilaudid-5, Dilaudid-HP, Hydrostat IR, Exalgo ERRx,
Sch.II
LevorphanolLevo-DromoranRx,
Sch.II
MeperidineDemerolRx,
Sch.II
MethadoneDolophine, MethadoseRx,
Sch.II
MorphineAstramorph PF, AVINZA, Duramorph, Kadian,
MS Contin, MSIR, Oramorph SR, Rescudose, Roxanol
Rx,
Sch.II
OxycodoneOxyContin, Roxicodone, OxectaRx,
Sch.II
OxymorphoneNumorphanRx,
Sch.II
PropoxypheneCotanal-65, DarvonRx,
Sch.IV
TapentadolNucyntaRx,
Sch.II
Partial Opioid Agonists
TramadolUltramRx,
Sch.IV
Mixed Opioid Agonists
BuprenorphineBuprenex, Butrans transdermal patchRx,
Sch.III
ButorphanolStadolRx,
Sch.IV
NalbuphineNubainRx*
PentazocineTalwinRx,
Sch.IV
Opioid Antagonists block the effects of opioid. These drugs are not analgesics and are used mainly to reverse the undesirable effects of the opioid agonists.
NaloxoneNarcanRx
NaltrexoneReviaRx
* Currently Nalbuphine remains the only opioid analgesic in the U.S. that is not a scheduled substance under the Controlled Substances Act.

Opioid analgesics work by attaching to specific proteins called opioid receptors, which are found in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract. They inhibit pain-transmitting neurons and stimulate pain-inhibitory neurons thus changing the brain's interpretation of pain.

Long-term use of narcotic analgesics can lead to physical dependence, tolerance, and addiction.

Schedule II medications have high potential for abuse and development of severe psychological or physical dependence.classification of drugs

Schedule III medications have high potential for abuse but moderate to low potential for serious psychological or physical dependence. Schedule III drugs have slightly less restrictive prescribing rules.classification of drugs

Opioid Classification























TypeDescription
OpiatesNatural derivatives of opium alkaloids (e.g. morphine, codeine, papaverine).
Semi-syntheticsSynthesized from naturally occurring derivatives, such as morphine or codeine (e.g. hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, oxycodone, buprenorphine, levorphanol, pentazocine, nalbuphine).
SyntheticsNon-morphinians, which are manufactured chemically and have structures unrelated to the opium alkaloids (e.g. fentanyl, meperidine, methadone, tramadol, tapentadol, propoxyphene).
Endogenous opioidsNatural peptides produced in the body (endorphins).

Narcotic Analgesics from Strongest to Weakest

Relative potency of opioid painkillers from strongest to weakest:

Fentanyl > Buprenorphine > Levorphanol > Oxymorphone > Hydromorphone > Phenazocine > Methadone > Oxycodone > Morphine > Hydrocodone > Tapentadol > Dihydrocodeine > Tramadol ≥ Codeine.

Combination Pain Relievers

Compound or combined analgesics usually contain a small amount of a mild narcotic, and a simple analgesic such as aspirin, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen. This type of analgesics is often prescribed when non-narcotic painkillers don't provide adequate analgesia.classification of drugs

















































































GenericBrand Name
Hydrocodone and IbuprofenHydrostal IR, Vicoprofen
Morphine/NaltrexoneEmbeda
Oxycodone/NaltrexoneTroxyca ER
Pentazocine/NaloxoneTalwin NX
Narcotic Analgesics and Acetaminophen
Acetaminophen and CodeineCapital with Codeine, Margesic #3, Phenaphen with Codeine, Tylenol with Codeine
Dihydrocodeine, Acetaminophen, and CaffeineDHCplus
Hydrocodone and AcetaminophenAllay, Anexsia 5/500, Anexsia 7.5/650, Dolacet, Dolagesic, Duocet, Hycomed, Hydrocet, Hydrogesic, HY-PHEN, Lorcet 10/650, Lorcet-HD, Lortab, Panacet 5/500, Panlor, Stagesic, T-Gesic, Ugesic, Vicodin, Zydone
Oxycodone and AcetaminophenEndocet, Percocet, Roxicet, Roxilox, Tylox; Xartemis XR
Pentazocine and AcetaminophenTalacen
Propoxyphene and AcetaminophenDarvocet-N 50,
Darvocet-N 100, E-Lor, Propacet 100
Tramadol and AcetaminophenUltracet
Narcotic Analgesics and Aspirin
Aspirin, Caffeine, and DihydrocodeineSynalgos-DC
Aspirin and CodeineEmpirin with Codeine
Hydrocodone and AspirinDamason-P, Lortab ASA, Panasal 5/500
Oxycodone and AspirinEndodan, Percodan, Percodan-Demi, Roxiprin
Pentazocine and AspirinTalwin Compound
Propoxyphene, Aspirin, and CaffeineDarvon Compound-65, PC-Cap, Propoxyphene Compound-65


Advantages of Opioids



  • Highly effective and rapid pain relief for moderate, severe and very severe pain.

  • No analgesic dose ceiling.  classification of drugs

  • Selective analgesia: reduction in pain suffering, minimal effects on pain localization

  • No harmful effects on important organs: cardiovascular system, kidney, liver, and hemostatic safety.

  • Multiple dosage formulations and routes of administration.

  • Many opioid drugs are relatively inexpensive.classification of drugs

Disadvantages of Opioids



  • Controlled status.

  • Annoying side effects: nausea, sedation, constipation, itching

  • Serious side effects: respiratory depression, airway obstruction.

  • Potential for abuse, addiction, development of psychological or physical dependence.classification of drugs

List of Pregnancy Category X Medications

Pregnancy Category X drugs are contraindicatedin women who are or may become pregnant. For medications assigned this category there are studies, adequate well-controlled or observational, in animals or pregnant women that have demonstrated positive evidence of fetal abnormalities.

The below list represents information on select medications that are classified as Pregnancy Category X (clearly teratogenic) medications. The listing is not inclusive, it may not cover all available medications on the world market. The drugs are grouped by pharmacologic classes.classification of drugs

5α-reductase inhibitors

















Generic nameBrand name
DutasterideAvodart
FinasterideProscar, Propecia


Anticoagulants
















Generic nameBrand name
Warfarin*Coumadin
Category D for women with mechanical heart valves


Antiprogestogens













Generic nameBrand name
MifepristoneKorlym, Mifeprex

classification of drugs

Anti-rheumatic













Generic nameBrand name
LeflunomideArava


Antivirals













Generic nameBrand name
RibavirinCopegus, Moderiba, Rebetol, Ribasphere, Virazole


Benzodiazepines
































Generic nameBrand name
EstazolamProsom
FlurazepamDalmane
QuazepamDoral
TemazepamRestoril
TriazolamHalcion
Benzodiazepines Pregnancy Category D:
Alprazolam (Xanax)
Chlordiazepoxide (Librium)
Clonazepam (Klonopin)
Clorazepate (Tranxene)
Diazepam (Valium)
Lorazepam (Ativan)
Oxazepam (Serax)


Endothelin Receptor Antagonists (ERA)





















Generic nameBrand name
AmbrisentanLetairis
BosentanTracleer
MacitentanOpsumit


Enzyme Inhibitors













Generic nameBrand name
MiglustatZavesca


Ergotamine Derivatives

















Generic nameBrand name
ErgotamineErgomar
DihydroergotamineDD.H.E. 45


Hormone Replacement Therapy


ALL Hormone Replacement Therapy preparations are Pregnancy Category X.classification of drugs


Gonadotropin Preparations

































Generic nameBrand name
MenotropinsHumegon, Menopur, Merional, Menogon, Metrodin, Repronex, Pergonal
CorifollitropinalfaElonva
Choriogonadotropin alfaOvidrel, Novarel, Pregnyl, chorionic gonadotropin
FollitropinalfaGonal-f, Gonal-f RFF
Follitropin betaFollistim AQ
UrofollitropinBravelle, Fertinorm


Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist (Antigonadotropins)





























Generic nameBrand name
BuserelinSuprefact
LeuprorelinLupron Depot
CetrorelixCetrotide
NafarelinSynarel
TriptorelinDecapeptyl


Growth Hormone Releasing Factors













Generic nameBrand name
TesamorelinEgrifta


Immune System Suppressants













Generic nameBrand name
MethotrexateRheumatrex


Oral Contraceptives


ALL Oral Contraceptives (birth control pilles) are Pregnancy Category X medications.
















































Generic name
Desogestrel/Ethinylestradiol
Dienogest/Estradiol valerate
Drospirenone/Ethinylestradiol
Etynodiol/Ethinylestradiol
Levonorgestrel
Levonorgestrel/Ethinylestradiol
Mestranol/Norethindrone
Norelgestromin/Ethinylestradiol
Norethindrone acetate/Ethinylestradiol
Norethindrone acetate/ Ethinylestradiol/ Ferrous fumarate
Norethindrone/Ethinylestradiol
Norethindrone/ Ethinylestradiol/ Ferrous fumarate
Norgestimate/Ethinylestradiol
Norgestrel/Ethinylestradiol


Prostaglandin Analogues













Generic nameBrand name
MisoprostolCytotec

classification of drugs




Retinoids
































Generic nameBrand name
AcitretinSoriatan
BexaroteneTargretin
EtretinateTegison
IsotretinoinAccutane
TazaroteneTazorac
Pregnancy Category D:
Tretinoin (Retin-A)


Selective Eestrogen Receptor Modulators





















Generic nameBrand name
ClomipheneClomid
OspemifeneOsphena
RaloxifeneEvista


Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor)





































Generic nameBrand name
AtorvastatinLipitor
FluvastatinLescol
LovastatinMevacor
PitavastatinLivalo
PravastatinPravachol
RosuvastatinCrestor
SimvastatinZocor

classification of drugs

Steroid Hormones

























Generic nameBrand name
DanazolDanocrine
MethyltestosteroneAndroid
OxandroloneOxandrin
TestosteroneAveed, Delatestryl, Depo-Testosterone, Testopel, Xyosted

classification of drugs