Psychiatry mnemonics

Conduct disorder vs. Antisocial personality disorder[edit]

Conduct disorder is seen in Children. Antisocial personality disorder is seen in Adults.

Depression: symptoms and signs (DSM-IV criteria)[edit]

AWESOME:

Affect flat

Weight change (loss or gain)

Energy, loss of

Sad feelings/ Suicide thoughts or plans or attempts/ Sexual inhibition/ Sleep change (loss or excess)/ Social withdrawal

Others (guilt, loss of pleasure, hopeless)

Memory loss

Emotional blunting

Depression[edit]

UNHAPPINESS:

Understandable (such as bereavement, major stresses)

Neurotic (high anxiety personalities, negative parental upbringing Hypochondriasis)

Agitation (usually organic causes such as dementia)

Pseudodementia

Pain

Importuniing (whingeing, complaining)

Nihilistic

Endogenous

Secondary (i.e. cancer at the head of the pancreas, bronchogenic cancer)

Syndromal

Erikson’s developmental stages[edit]

“The sad tale of Erikson Motors”:

  • The stages in order by age group:

Mr. Trust and MsTrust had an auto they were ashamed of. She took the initiative to find the guilty party. She found the industry was inferior. They were making cars with dents [identity] and rolling fuses [role confusion]. Mr. N.T. Macy [intimacy] isolated the problem, General TVT absorbed the cost. In the end, they found the tires were just gritty and the should have used de- spare!

Mental state examination[edit]

ASEPTIC:

Appearance

Speech

Emotion (Objective/Subjective)

Perceptions

Thoughts

Insight

Cognition

Mania: cardinal symptoms[edit]

DIG FAST:

Distractibility

Indiscretion (DSM-IV’s “excessive involvement in pleasurable activities”)

Grandiosity

Flight of ideas

Activity increase

Sleep deficit (decreased need for sleep)

Talkativeness (pressured speech)

Mania: diagnostic criteria[edit]

Must have 3 of MANIAC:

Mouth (pressure of speech)/ Moodl

Activity increased

Naughty (disinhibition)

Insomnia

Attention (distractability)

Confidence (grandiose ideas)

Parasomnias: time of onset[edit]

SLeep terrors and SLeepwalking occur during SLow-wave sleep (stages 3 & 4).NightmaRE occurs during REM sleep (and is REMembered).

Psychiatric review of symptoms[edit]

Depressed Patients Seem Anxious, So Claim Psychiatrists”:

Depression and other mood disorders (major depression, bipolar disorder, dysthymia)

Personality disorders (primarily borderline personality disorder)

Substance abuse disorders

Anxiety disorders (panic disorder with agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder)

Somatization disorder, eating disorders (these two disorders are combined because both involve disorders of bodily perception)

Cognitive disorders (dementia, delirium)

Psychotic disorders (schizophrenia, delusional disorder and psychosis accompanying depression, substance abuse or dementia)

Schizophrenia: negative features[edit]

4 A’s:

Ambivalence

Affective incongruence

Associative loosening

Autism

Substance dependence: features (DSM IV)[edit]

WITHDraw IT:

  • 3 of 7 within 12-month period:

Withdrawal

Interest or Important activities given up or reduced

Tolerance

Harm to physical and psychosocial known but continue to use

Desire to cut down, control

Intended time, amount exceeded

Time spent too much

Psychology

Depression: major episode characteristics

SPACE DIGS:

Sleep disruption

Psychomotor retardation

Appetite change

Concentration loss

Energy loss

Depressed mood

Interest wanes

Guilt

Suicidal tendencies

Depression: DSM-V Criteria for Major Depressive Disorder

“SIG E CAPS”:

Sleep disturbances

Interest decreased (anhedonia)

Guilt and/or feelings of worthlessness

Energy decreased

Concentration problems

Appetite/weight changes

Psychomotor agitation or retardation

Suicidal ideation

Gain: primary vs. secondary vs. tertiary

Primary: Patient’s Psyche improved.

Secondary: Symptom Sympathy for patient.

Tertiary: Therapist’s gain

Kubler-Ross dying process: stages

“‘Death Always Brings Great Acceptance“:

Denial

Anger

Bargaining

Grieving

Acceptance

Middle adolescence (14-17 years): characteristics

HERO:

Heterosexual crushes/ Homosexual Experience

Education regarding short term benefits

Risk taking

Omnipotence

Narcolepsy: symptoms, epidemiology

CHAP:

Cataplexy

Hallucinations

Attacks of sleep

Paralysis on waking

  • Usual presentation is a young male, hence “chap”

Suicide: risk screening

SAD PERSONS scale:

Sex (Male – Completion, Female – Attempt)

Age (Adolescent or Elderly)

Depression

Previous attempt

Ethanol abuse

Rational thinking loss

Social support problems

Organised plan

No spouse

Sickness (chronic illness)

Sleep stages: features

DElta waves during DEepest sleep (stages 3 & 4, slow-wave).

dREaM during REM sleep.

Impotence causes

PLANE:

Psychogenic: performance anxiety

Libido: decreased with androgen deficiency, drugs

Autonomic neuropathy: impede blood flow redirection

Nitric oxide deficiency: impaired synthesis, decreased blood pressure

Erectile reserve: can’t maintain an erection

Male erectile dysfunction (MED): biological causes

MED:

Medicines (propranalol, methyldopa, SSRI, etc.)

Ethanol

Diabetes mellitus

Premature ejaculation: treatment

2 S’s:

SSRIs

Squeezing technique [glans pressure before climax]

More detail with 2 more S’s:

Sensate-focus exercises [relieves anxiety]

Stop and start method [5-6 rehearsals of stopping stimulation before climax]

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