Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Treating type 2 diabetes requires patience and commitment by both a clinician and the patient. This is because type 2 diabetes treatment goes for life provided the cause of diabetes in that patient cannot be eliminated.There is medical and lifestyle and diet modification in order to make a full set of DMT2 management.
Here treatment is by using drugs. Different anti diabetic drugs work differently but the whole aim is to achieve required level of blood glucose.
Drug classes used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes include the following:
These drugs improve the secretion of insulin into the blood by the pancreas. People use the following newer medicines most often, as they are less likely to cause adverse effects:
The older, less common sulfonylureas are:
Today, doctors prescribe sulfonylureas less often than they did in the past. This is because they can cause very low blood sugar, which causes other health problems.treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Meglitinides also enhance insulin secretion. These might also improve the effectiveness of the body in releasing insulin during meals, and include:
Biguanides boost the effect of insulin. They reduce the amount of glucose the liver releases into the blood.
They also increase the uptake of blood glucose into the cells.
Metformin is the only licensed biguanide in the United States, in the form of Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Riomet, and Fortamet.
Thiazolidinediones reduce the resistance of tissues to the effects of insulin. They have been associated with serious side effects, so they need monitoring for potential safety issues. People with heart failure should not use these medications, which include.
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors cause carbohydrates to be digested and absorbed more slowly. This lowers glucose levels in the blood after meals.
Dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors
Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP-4) inhibitors slow the rate of the stomach contents emptying further along the gut, and so slow down glucose absorption.
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors cause the body to expel more glucose into the urine from the bloodstream. They might also lead to a modest amount of weight loss, which can be a benefit for type 2 diabetes.
Incretin mimetics are drugs that mimic the hormone incretin, which stimulates insulin release after meals. These include:
Oral combination drugs
A variety of products that combine some of the drugs mentioned above is available. These include:
Diet and lifestyle
Not only medication as I said, achieving a required blood glucose level in diabetic patients requires diet selection and lifestyle modification.
Recommended foods for diabetic patients
Make your calories count with these nutritious foods. Choose healthy carbohydrates, fiber-rich foods, fish and “good” fats.
During digestion, sugars (simple carbohydrates) and starches (complex carbohydrates) break down into blood glucose. Focus on healthy carbohydrates, such as:
Avoid less healthy carbohydrates, such as foods or drinks with added fats, sugars and sodium.
Dietary fiber includes all parts of plant foods that your body can’t digest or absorb. Fiber moderates how your body digests and helps control blood sugar levels. Foods high in fiber include:
Eat heart-healthy fish at least twice a week. Fish such as salmon, mackerel, tuna and sardines are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which may prevent heart disease.Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Avoid fried fish and fish with high levels of mercury, such as king mackerel.
Foods containing monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats can help lower your cholesterol levels. These include:
But don’t overdo it, as all fats are high in calories.
Foods to avoid
Diabetes increases your risk of heart disease and stroke by accelerating the development of clogged and hardened arteries. Foods containing the following can work against your goal of a heart-healthy diet.
Managing complications of DMT2d
Diabetes increases your risk for many serious health problems. The good news? With the correct treatment and recommended lifestyle changes, many people with diabetes are able to prevent or delay the onset of complications.
Not common in type 2 DM but it occurs. Patient experience low blood sugar after taking anti diabetic drugs. If patient starts feeling week and dizzy it maybe hypoglycemia and taking a light meal or a drink the symptoms go away.
In case of severe hypoglycemia dextrose is given IV.
Stay alert for symptoms of skin infections and other skin disorders common in people with diabetes.
Keep your risk of glaucoma, cataracts and other eye problems low with regular checkups.
Nerve damage from diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy (new-ROP-uh-thee). About half of all people with diabetes have some form of nerve damage.
Learn about neuropathy (which can cause numbness in the feet) as well as other complications.
Know the warning signs of DKA and check urine for ketones, especially when you’re sick.
Keep your diabetes and blood pressure under control to lower the chance of getting kidney disease.
High blood pressure—also called hypertension—raises your risk for heart attack, stroke, eye problems, and kidney disease.
Maintain target levels for blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol to reduce your risk of stroke.
Get treatment to help you manage gastroparesis, so that you can be as healthy and comfortable as possible.